A couple of non hardware possibilites:-
You picked up a connection from another wireless router, not your own. If this was the case you might or might not get an IP address, and if you did you might still be unable to do anything. If you've now got connected to your own router then the problem would disappear.
You had a duplicate IP address that's being used by something else on your network, this could cause all sorts of odd things to happen. If that other box is now down or has obtained another address then your problem would disappear.
You'll probably never know what was wrong, unless it happens again
I have been touched by his noodly appendage.