I found the easiest way to find out what motherboard I have is to open the case and have a look (it might also be reported in the BIOS, I don't remember).
If you just want to find out what sound card you have, then just do:
lspci | grep -i audio
For example, this gives me:
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rhakios@pythia:~$ lspci | grep -i audio
00:05.0 Audio device: nVidia Corporation MCP61 High Definition Audio (rev a2)
Which is enough information for the basis of a search.
Edit: programs like hwinfo, tend to give a lot more detail, without it necessarily being of much use, for example, it gives a system board identifier for my PC, but doesn't tell me the exact model.